Measurement of fluid properties

In general, therefore, the prism experiences a torque. Pressure across the membrane is maintained below capillary breakthrough values for the non-wetting phase and the flow rate though is significantly less than that passing over the membrane thus reducing problems related to cake build up and fouling.

When implemented in software, firmware, middleware or microcode, the program code or code segments to perform the necessary tasks may be stored in a machine readable medium such as storage medium.

If the rock stresses are sufficiently anisotropic it is possible that a tensile zone and associated fracture exist parallel to the borehole wall prior to the fluid pressure being raised. It is a consequence of that Figure 1: In a first aspect, embodiments of the present invention relate to a method of measuring physical properties of a non-Newtonian fluid, such as a fluid containing dispersed solid particulate material and having a yield stress, the method comprising moving a fluid resistance member through the fluid sufficiently slowly that viscous drag on the member is negligible and fluid resistance is essentially due to the yield stress of the fluid, measuring the torque required to maintain the movement of the member through the fluid, followed by deriving at least one physical property, other than apparent viscosity of the fluid, by employing a known relationship between the measured torque and the physical property of interest.

As will be discussed at the end of Chapter 3 in the lectures, the buoyant force on any object surrounded by a fluid or floating on a liquid is equal to the weight of the fluid that is displaced by the object.

In steady flow, the fluid is in motion but the streamlines are fixed.

Pressure measurement

Surface tension is what causes liquids to rise up capillary tubes, what supports hanging liquid drops, what limits the formation of ripples on the surface of liquids, and so on. It has been used in measurements to 1 km in depth and can be used to 2 km.

The term fluid mechanicsas used here, embraces both fluid dynamics and the subject still generally referred to as hydrostatics. Stages in the formation of a liquid drop see text.

The tool is a biaxial device and if testing is only conducted in a single borehole an assumption must be made as to the stress in the axial direction of the hole. Since the magnitude of the torque would vary like the third power of the linear dimensions of the cube, whereas the moment of inertia of the element would vary like the fifth power, the resultant angular acceleration for an infinitesimal cube would be infinite.

This application further overcomes the difficulty in making the WLR measurement itself because of the differences in physical properties of the oil and water in standard flow lines by the measurement made in a very small or mini-channel where the superficial tension maintains both phases at the same speed.

SUMMARY In one embodiment of the present invention, a method of measuring physical properties of a non-Newtonian fluid is provided, such as a fluid containing dispersed solid particulate material and having a yield stress.

In fact to achieve a pressure seal in an open hole, packers must be at a higher pressure than the fluid being injected and therefore they will initiate failure unless some pre-existing rock fracture exists in the test zone. Another aspect of the present invention provides a method for the real time analysis of a multiphase fluid, the method comprising directing a sampling stream of a fluid externally from a flow line; directing individual phases of a fluid stream to a fluid analysis module comprising an array of sensors; measuring a property of the sampling fluid stream using a sensor; and processing the measurement.

If the pressure could be held steady at the value corresponding to B, the drop would then become unstable, because any further growth e.

OMEGA provides current and developing flow technologies which drive both industry and industrial processes. They help to improve these processes, working to make them cost-effective and efficient, while considering the time constraints of their customers.

An Introduction to Flow Measurement & Fluid Properties

Also, it is noted that the embodiments may be described as a process which is depicted as a flowchart, a flow diagram, a data flow diagram, a structure diagram, or a block diagram.

If carried to extremes, the argument of the previous section implies that water initially stationary in a beaker can never be set into rotation by rotating the beaker or by stirring it with a spoon, and this is clearly nonsense.

The molecules, however, are so small and, except in gases at very low pressures, the number of molecules per millilitre is so enormous that they need not be viewed as individual entities.

The first person to correct this error was Pierre-Simon Laplace. The Thermophysical Properties of Fluids Group performs experimental measurements and develops models and empirical correlations to describe and predict thermodynamic and transport properties for a variety of industrially relevant fluids and fluid mixtures including fuels, refrigerants, bulk chemicals and specialty chemicals.

How Do You Measure Viscosity? Rotational Viscometers measure the torque required to turn a spindle in a sample of fluid at a known commonly-used viscometers are capable of measuring Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Fluids in a wide viscosity range.

Advancing Fluid-Property Measurements Soraya Betancourt Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA Tara Davies reservoir-fluid properties and quantification of their variation.

This technology gives operators Berrim A: “Downhole pH as a Novel Measurement Tool. The many applications of flow measurement include uses in water supply, medical research, oil exploration, food processing and distribution of gas.

The uses of this technology are very diverse, with each different situation bringing unique challenges and requirements.

Technical note 12, Differential pressure mass flow meter, rev. b, 1 Theory overview of flow measurement using differential pressure devices based on ISO standard. This revised edition provides updated fluid mechanics measurement techniques as well as a comprehensive review of flow properties required for research, development, and application.

Measurement of fluid properties
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